Telecoms glossary

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Telecoms glossary

BAT card testing

A BAT card is a non-operational card produced using the materials, inks and finish that will be used in the mass production of the product. Although BAT cards cannot be technically tested with a device, both marketing and technical verification are required for printing and personalization details.

BAP card testing

A BAP card is a mock up SIM card that is fully operational but may not necessarily contain a finished artwork design. ‘BAP’ stands for ‘bon à produire’ which translates from French as ‘ready to produce’. The role of BAP card testing is to check the exact electrical profile of a SIM card before manufacturing. ‘White BAP card testing’ takes place without artwork in place. ‘Full BAP testing’ includes artwork.

Biodegradable SIM

A biodegradable SIM card completely biodegrades at the end of its usable life, either in landfill or compost conditions eliminating its plastic waste. Workz’s EcoSIM is one of the world’s first biodegradable SIM cards and is made from oxo-biodegradable plastic that contains a stabiliser to ensure consistent performance over the usable life of the SIM. After use, when the card is placed in a landfill, the degradation process takes 18-30 months and 4-6 months as litter. This offers a significantly reduced environmental footprint than traditional plastic and recyclable plastic SIM cards which are estimated to take hundreds of years to decompose.

SIM data personalisation

SIM data personalisation refers to the upload of the SIM’s unique information to its smart chip. This allows the SIM to connect to a specific network securely and enables the provider to identify a specific subscriber’s device for billing and other purposes.

SIM applets

SIM applets are smaller applications that are stored within a SIM card rather than on a device. SIM applets are used to improve a SIM card’s range of operations. For instance, SIM applets may store contact information, security features, manage mobile payments, or expand network connectivity options.


OTA stands for ‘over the air’ and it refers to the wireless transmission of data, files, applets, and configuration settings to mobile devices. OTA platforms make it possible to add new services and receive updates on mobile phones without being in possession of a physical SIM card.

OTA campaigns

OTA (over the air) campaigns refer to the wireless delivery of data, software, and settings to mobile phones via OTA platforms. OTA campaigns might involve updates to software, the addition of new operator services, or modification to existing services. Workz provides over-the-air subscriber management services to simplify the process of customisations.

Remote SIM provisioning

Also known as RSP, remote SIM provisioning is the act of remotely provisioning a network profile in a device with an embedded SIM or eSIM. Workz offers a Multi-tenant eSIM Hub (MeSH), as a complete management platform providing eSIM orchestration capabilities to simplify and enhance the management of eSIM devices across all sectors consumer and M2M to IoT.

eSIM management

eSIM technology provides remote access, updates, and visibility for mobile devices with an embedded SIM rather than a physical SIM card. eSIM management refers to every aspect of overseeing and control of the full eSIM technology. For instance, eSIM management involves data generation and profile development at the beginning of the eSIM life cycle, activation and OTA provisioning, through to deactivation at the end of the life cycle. Workz provides advanced solutions to pave the way with the first and only cloud eSIM management platform to enable providers to manage both consumers and M2M devices.


eUICC is the software contained within an eSIM. The term stands for ‘embedded universal integrated circuit card’. A eUICC may contain one or more network profiles. Each network profile allows the eUICC to connect to a mobile network and function in the same way as a traditional SIM.


In telecommunications, an EUM is the manufacturer of eUICC products. The EUM is also responsible for the secure upload of the eUICC’s data to an eSIM.


SM-DP stands for ‘subscription management – data preparation’. This refers to network M2M eSIM profiles being prepared, packaged and stored.


SM-SR is also known as ‘subscription management – secure routing’. This is how M2M eSIM profiles are remotely managed on a device. Through SM-SR, eSIM profiles can be added, enabled, disabled or deleted OTA, i.e. wirelessly.


SM-DP+ stands for ‘subscription management data preparation plus’. It involves the creation of the consumer’s eSIM profile, download, remote management, and the security that protects the operator’s credentials.


LPA otherwise known as Local Profile Assistant refers to a set of functions that must be included in the devices using eSIM technology. These particular functions enable the download of encrypted eSIM profiles to the eUICC. The LPA also presents the local management interface which enables the user to manage the status of their profiles on eSIM software.


The Discovery Service or DS provides a means to notify the LPA when eSIM profile data is available for download to the eUICC. The device polls the SM-DS for notifications when required.

GSMA eSIM Discovery Service

The GSMA eSIM Discovery Service is also referred to as a ‘Subscription Management Root- Discovery Service’ (SM-DS). It is an eSIM activation method provided by the GSMA for an annual charge, as well as usage fees and development fees related to custom-built services. The SM-DS uses a central hub that provides the means for telcos to download their mobile subscription to devices without the need for integrations between mobile network operators (MNOs) and the device manufacturer.

Apple Lookup Service

Apple’s Look Up Service (ALS) is an example of an eSIM DS. It is considered to be the most developed and readily available option, and is currently free of charge. Apple provides the ALS for cellular activation of all iOS eSIM devices. The Apple Lookup Server prompts the eSIM to install directly to the end user’s device via a push message. The system offers a seamless user experience that integrates with the operator’s SM-DP+.


The GSMA’s Security Accreditation Scheme (SAS) provides mobile operators with the opportunity to assess the security of both their SIM suppliers, both physical SIM and eSIM, and their eSIM subscription management service providers. The GSMA SAS supplies a standard framework for eSIM and SIM production(SAS-UP) and subscription management (SAS-SM). This framework aims to ensure an excellent level of security, compatibility and interoperability from and between all providers.

Entitlement server

Using an entitlement server is a modern solution that allows providers to connect with the latest generation of mobile devices, enabling and disabling services as required. These devices include wearables, IoT devices and their companion devices like laptops and tablets. This provides expansion capabilities for MNO’s, who can leverage these entitlement platforms.

Network providers can also use an entitlement server to manage subscriber authentication and configure service settings from a single platform, wirelessly and across all devices.


T-zero or time-zero is the point at which all necessary components are verified, approved and ready for mass production.

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